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Calum MacAulay, PhD

Head, Integrative Oncology

Calum photo     Rm 6-110 ▪ 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C., V5Z 1L3, Canada

Current Appointments:

Head - Integrative Oncology Department

Distinguished Scientist - Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department

Clinical Associate Professor - Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia

Administration: Jayne Hunter - Manager of Operations and Research - Integrative Oncology Jacquie Szeto - Administrative Coordinator - Integrative Oncology


University of British Columbia     Ph.D.    Physics    1989

Dalhousie University                  M.Sc.    Physics    1984

Dalhousie University                  B.Sc.    Engineering Physics   1982


Research Interests:

My research focuses on the research and development of new means for the detection, grading, and treatment of early, non-invasive cancer and to see these means used clinically. It has long been, recognized that all cancer can be successfully treated at an early stage, including cancer of the lung, breast, cervix, colon and prostate. Towards this goal the multi-disciplinary in which I participate have developed several new devices employing solid state sensors and advanced light sources coupled with computer technology. These devices make previously invisible early cancers readily detectable. We developed a device called the Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscope (LIFE), enabling a more than 2X improvement in early lung cancer detection.

As part of NCI/NIH program grant I participate as part of a multi-disciplinary group to develop, apply and test new macroscopic and microscopic optical technologies for the detection and grading of preinvasive cervical interepithelial neoplasias (CIN).

Another system which we developed is a fully automated microscope which can scan microscope slides for the presence of cancerous cells. This device, too, has now been used in clinical trials for detection of early cervical cancer as well as in research for the lung and the breast and is currently being optimized for monolayer cervical smears. Subtle changes in cells, invisible to the human eye, can now be detected with the automated microscope which indicates the presence of cancerous growth, even in the absence of traditionally diagnostic cells. This effect is known as Malignancy Associated Changes (MAC). This is particularly useful in the quantitative screening of sputum cytology which is the only non-invasive method for detecting early non-invasive lung cancer. To better understand the development of normal tissue into invasive neoplasia we have developed and continue to develop tools to measure nuclear morphology and tissue architecture. The measurements from these tools are being used to quantify this development process and to understand the process through mathematical models.

As part of investigating these areas it became obvious that in the interpretation of biopsies much information was being lost in the translation from a three dimensional biopsy to a two dimensional section. To address this issue we are currently working on two new novel methods of DMD (digital micromirror device, TI) enabled three dimensional microscopic imaging (confocal and tomographic reconstruction microscopy). In addition we are also developing confocal in vivo endoscopic applications.


Current Career Opportunities 


The Integrative Oncology Department at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (Vancouver, BC) has an immediate opening for a Post-doctoral fellow. The Integrative Oncology Department develops software tools and optical instrumentation for the early detection of cancer. Our research includes aspects of image analysis, image understanding and machine learning applied to optical microscopy, optical imaging and spectroscopy for the in vivo, ex vivo, and in silica evaluation of tissues from different organ sites including lung, cervix, oral cavity, skin and colon.

We are seeking a qualified individual to work on a project recently funded by the Terry Fox Research Institute. The project involves the development of image analysis software based upon extending existing microscopy based image analysis software as part of a LDCT Radiomics approach for the differentiation of aggressive peripheral lung nodules from benign lesions. This work will used data from several large multicentre LDCT lung cancer screening cohort data sets. This will be done in collaboration with researchers at two international collaborative institutions (one US and one Australian). This will also involve the use of unique in house instrumentation and software for the hyperspectral analysis and spectral unmixing of multi-label IHC immune cell hallmarks of cancer antibody panels for the analysis of excised peripheral lung nodule tissue. This will be correlated with a subset of the LDCT image data. It is expected that the results of this work will be publication of scientific results at international conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. The successful candidate will join an interdisciplinary research group including biomedical engineers, imaging scientists, and clinicians.


The ideal candidate will have a Ph.D. in medical physics/biomedical-electrical engineering/image analysis, or a related field. The candidate should have hands-on experience in either LDCT or MRI image analysis and solid understanding of at least two of following subjects: low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer, image processing, segmentation of medical images, image texture analysis/texture feature extraction. Experience with Matlab, C/C++, Java language programming is desirable. Excellent communication skills and proficient English language skills are required.

The candidate will work in a multidisciplinary team of physicians, cancer biologists, chemists, optical engineers and physicists. The successful candidate will be expected to work effectively and independently while assisting M.Sc. and Ph.D. candidates in our laboratory.  This position offers significant opportunity for interaction in a multidisciplinary environment at the interface between medical imaging and clinical practice. Preference will be given to applicants with a proven track record in biomedical research and candidates should have more than casual interest in publishing. This is a two year term position, with the possibility of a third year extension based on performance and funding sources.

Interested candidates should forward their covering letter and Curriculum Vitae to:

Jayne Hunter, Manager – Administration

Integrative Oncology, BC Cancer Agency

BC Cancer Research Centre

675 West 10th Avenue

Vancouver, British Columbia


V5Z 1L3



Refereed Journals - Last 5 years

  1. Enfield K, Martin S, Marshall E, S Kung C, Gallagher P, Milne K, Chen Z, Nelson B, Lam S; English J; MacAulay C, Lam W, Guillaud M.  Hyperspectral Cell Sociology Reveals Spatial Tumor-Immune Cell Interactions Associated with Lung Cancer Recurrence.  J Immunother Cancer.  2019 Jan 16;7(1):13. doi: 10.1186/s40425-018-0488-6.

  2. Lee AMD, MacAulay C, Lane P.  Depth-multiplexed optical coherence tomography dual-beam manually-actuated distortion-corrected imaging (DMDI) with a micromotor catheter. Biomed Opt Express. 2018 Oct 23;9(11):5678-5690
  3. Guillaud M, MacAulay CE, Berean KW, Bullock M, GuggisbergK, Klieb H, Puttagunta L, Penner C, Kwan K, Rosin MP, Poh CF.  Using quantitative tissue phenotype to assess the margins of surgical samples from a pan-Canadian surgery study.  Head Neck.  2018 Jun; 40(6):1263-1270
  4. Abouei E, Lee AMD, Pahlevaninezhad H, Hohert G, Cua M, Lane P, Lam S, MacAulay C.  Correction of motion artifacts in endoscopic optical coherence tomography and autogluorescence images based on azimuthal en face image registration.  J Biomed Opt.  2018 Janl 23(1):1-13
  5. MacAulay C, Keyes M, Hayes M, Lo A, Wang G, Guillaud M, Gleave M, Fazli L, Korbelik J, Collins C, Keyes S, Palcic B. Quantification of large scale DNA organization for predicting prostate cancer recurrence.  Cytometry A.  2017 Dec;91(12):1164-1174
  6. Lee AMD, Hohert G, Angkiriwang PT, MacAulay C, Lane P.  Dual-beam manually-actuated distortion-corrected imaging (DMDI) with micromotor catheters.  Opt Express.  2017 Sep 4;25(18(:22164-22177
  7. Bodenschatz N, Poh CF, Lam S, Lane P, Guillaud M, MacAulay CE.  Dual-mode endomicroscopy for detection of epithelial dysplasia in the mouth: a descriptive pilot study.  J Biomed Opt.  2017 Aug:22(8):1-10
  8. Bengtsson E, Danielsen H, Treanor D, Gurcan MN, MacAulay C, Molnar B.  Computer-aided diagnostic in digital pathology.  Cytometry A.  2017 Jun; 91(6):551-554
  9. Bailey MJ, Verma N, Fradkin L, Lam S, MacAulay C, Poh C, Markey MK, Sokolov K.  Detection of prevancerous lesions in the oral cavity using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a clinical feasibility study.  J Biomed Opt.  2017 Jun 1; 22(6):65002
  10. Schlosser C, Bodenschatz N, Lam S, Lee M, McAlpine JN, Miller DM, Van Niekerk DJ, Follen M, Guillaud M, MacAulay CE, Lane PM.  Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limiations for clinical implementation.  J biomed Opt. 2016 Dec 1l 21(12):126011
  11. Becker-Santos DD, Thu KL, English JC, Pikor LA, Martinez VD, Zhang M, Vucic EA, Luk MT, Carraro A, Korbelik J, Piga D, Lhomme NM, Tsay MJ, Yee J, MacAulay CE, Lam S, Lockwood WW, Robinson WP, Jurisica I, Lam WL.  Developmental transcription factor NFIB is a putative target of oncofetal miRNAs and is associated with tumour aggressiveness in lung adenomcarcinoma. J Pathol.  2016 October; 240(2):161-72
  12. Pahlevaninezhad H, Lee AM, Hohert G, Lam S, Shaipanich T, Beaudoin EL, MacAulay C, Boudoux C, Lane P. Endoscopic high-resolution autofluorescence imaging and OCT of pulmonary vascular networks. Opt Lee. 2016 Jul 15;41(14):3209-12
  13. Zarei N, Bakhitiari A, Korbelik J, Carraro A, Keyes M, Guillaud M, MacAulay C.  Automated region-based prostate cancer cell nuclei localization.  Part of a prognostic modality tool for prostate cancer patients.  Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol.  2016 Apr;38(2):59-69
  14. Bodenschatz N, Lam S, Carraro A, Korbelik J, Miller DM, McAlpine JN, Lee M, Kienle A, MacAulay C.  Diffuse optical microscopy for quantification of depth-dependent epithelial backscattering in the cervix. J Biomed Opt.  2016 Jun 1;21(6):66001
  15. Shokoufi M, Grewal PK, MacAulay C, Golnaraghi F.  Periodic dynamic thermography for breast cancer assessment.  Bioengineering and Biomedical Science.  Mar 30, 2016 6(2)
  16. Poh CF, Anderson DW, Durham JS, chen J, Berean KW, MacAulay CE, Rosin MP.  Fluorescence visualization-guided surgery for early stage oral cancer.  JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.  2016 Jan 14:1-8
  17. Yamal JM, Guillaud M, Atkinson EN, Follen M, MacAulay C, Cantor SB, Cox DD.  Prediction using hierarchical data: Applications for automated detection of cervical cancer.  Stat Anal Data Min.  2015 Apr;8(2):65-74
  18. Kirby M, Ohtani K, Nickens T, Lisbona RM, Lee AM, Shaipanich T, Lane P,MacAulay C, Lam S, Cosxon HO.  Reproducibility of optical coherence tomography airway imaging.  Biomed Opt Express.  2015 Oct 14; 6(11):4365-77
  19. Pahlevaninezhad H, Lee AM, Ritchie A, Shaipanich T, Zhang W, Ionescu DN, Hohert G, MacAulay C, Lam S, Lane P.  Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography and autoglurescence imaging of peripheral pulmonary nodules and vasculature.  Biomed Opt Express.  2015 Sep 30;6(1):4191-9
  20. Sheikhzadeh F, Ward RK, Carraro A, Chen ZY, van Niekerk D, Miller D, Ehlen T, Follen M, MacAulay C, Lane PM, Guillaud M.  Quantification of confocal fluorescence microscopy for the detection of cervical IntraEpithelial Neoplasia.  Biomedical Engineering Online. 2015 Oct 24;14(1):96
  21. Pahlevaninezhad H, Lee AMD, Ritchie A, Shaipanich T, Zhang W, Ionescu DN, Gogert G, MacAulay C, Lam S, Lane P.  Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence imaging of peripheral pulmonary nodules and vasculature.  Biomed Opt Express.  2015 Sept; 6(10) 4191-4199
  22. Kirby M, Ohtani K, Lopez Lisbona RM, Lee AM, Zhang W, Lane P, Varfolomeva N, Hui L, Ionescu D, Coxson HO, MacAulay C, FitzGerald JM, Lam S.  Eur Respir J.  Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography.  2015 Sep;46(3):859-62
  23. Lee AM, Cahill L, Liu K, MacAulay C, Poh C, Lane P.  Wide-field in vivo oral OCT imaging.  Biomed Opt Express.  2015 Jun 24; 6(7):2664-74
  24. Ngheim VT, Davies KR, Beck JR, Follen M, MacAulay C, Guillaud M, Cantor SB.  Economic evaluation of DNA ploidy analysis vs liquid-based cytology for cervical screening.  Br J Cancer.  2015 Jun 9; 112(12): 1951-7
  25. McWilliams A, Beigi P, Srinidhi A, Lam S, MacAulay C.  Sex and smoking status effects on the early detection of early lung cancer in high-risk smokers using and electronic nose.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2015 Aug;62(8):2044-54 
  26. Pahlevaninezhad H, Lee AM, Rosin M, Sun I, Zhang L, Hakimi M, MacAulay C, Lane PM.  Optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence imaging of human tonsil.  PLoS One.  2014 Dec 26;9(12):e115889
  27. Vucic EA, Thu KL, Pikor LA, Enfield KS, Yee J, English JC, MacAulay CE, Lam S, Jurisica I, Lam WL.  Smoking status impacts microRNA mediated prognonsis and lung adenocarcinoma biology.  BMC Cancer.  2014 Oct 24;14:778.
  28. Martinez VD, MacAulay CE, Guillaud M, Lam WL, Zhang L, Corbett KK, Rosin MP.  Targeting of chemoprevention to high-risk potentially malignant oral lesions: Challenges and opportunities.  Oral Oncol.  2014 Dec; 50(12):1123-30
  29. Guillaud M, Buys TP, Carraro A, Korbelik J, Follen M, Scheurer M, Storthz KA, van Nieker D, MacAulay CE.  Evaluation of HPV infection and smoking status impacts on cell proliferation in epithelial layers of cervical neoplasia.  PLoS One.  2014 Sep 11;9(9)
  30. Pahlevaninezhad H, Lee AMD, Shaipanich T, Raizada R, Cahill L, Hohert G, Yang VXD, Lam S, MacAulay C, Lane PM.  A high-efficiency fiber-based imaging system for co-registered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography (AF-OCT).  Biomedical Optics Express.  2014 Aug 6. Vol. 5, Iss. 9, pp. 2978–2987
  31. MacLellan SA, MacAulay C, Lam S, Garnis C.  Pre-profiling factors influencing serum microRNA levels.  BMC Clin Pathol.  2014 Jun 21;14:27.
  32. Lee AM, Kirby M, Ohtani K, CAndido T, Shalansky R, MacAulay C, English K, Finley R, Lam S, Coxson HO, Lane P.  Validation of Airpway Wall Measurements by Optical Coherence Tomography in Porcine Airways.  PLoS One.  2014 Jun 20; 9(6):e100145
  33. Lee AM, Pahlevaninezhad H, Yang VX, Lam S, MacAulay C, Lane P.  Fiber-optic polarization diversity detection for rotary probe optical coherence tomography.  Opt Lett.  2014 Jun 15;39(12):3638-41
  34. Baik J, Ye Q, Zhang L, Poh C, Rosin M, MacAulay C, Guillaud M.  Automated classification of oral premalignant lesions using image cytometry and Random Forests-based algorithms.  Cell Oncol (Dordr).  2014 Jun;37(3):193-202.
  35. Wang L, Lee JS, Lane P, Atkinson EN, Zuluaga A, Follen M, MacAulay C, Cox DD.  A statistical model for removing inter-device differences in spectroscopy.  Opt Express. 2014 Apr 7;22(7):7617-24. doi: 10.1364/OE.22.007617.
  36. Pahlevaninezhad H, Lee AM, Lam S, MacAulay C, Lane PM.  Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections.  J Biomed Opt. 2014 Mar;19(3):36022. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.3.036022.
  37. Arifler D, MacAaulay C, Follen M, Guillaud M. Numerical investigation of two-dimensional light scattering patterns of cervical cell nuclei to map dysplastic changes at different epithelial depths. Biomed Opt Express.  2014 Jan 15;5(2):485-98. doi: 10.1364/BOE.5.000485
  38. Li G, van Niekerk D, Miller D, Ehlen T, Garnis C, Follen M, Guillaud M, MacAulay C. Molecular fixative enables expression microarray analysis of microdissected clinical cervical specimens. Exp Mol Pathol. 2014 Apr;96(2):168-77. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2013.12.007
  39. Vucic EA, Chari R, Thu KL, Wilson IM, Cotton AM, Kennett JY, Zhang M, Lonergan KM, Steiling K, Brown CJ, McWilliams A, Ohtani K, Lenburg ME, Sin DD, Spira A, MacAulay CE, Lam S, Lam WL. DNA Methylation is Globally Disrupted and Associated with Expression Changes in COPD Small Airways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013 Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print]
  40. Contaldo M, Poh CF, Guillaud M, Lucchese A, Rullo R, Lam S, Serpico R, MacAulay CE, Lane PM. Oral mucosa optical biopsy by a novel handheld fluorescent confocal microscope specifically developed: technologic improvements and future prospects. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013 Dec;116(6):752-8. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2013.09.006.
  41. Pahlevaninezhad H, Cecic I, Lee AM, Kyle AH, Lam S, MacAulay C, Lane PM. Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells. J Biomed Opt. 2013;18(10):106007. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.10.106007.
  42. Wilson IM, Vucic EA, Enfield KS, Thu KL, Zhang YA, Chari R, Lockwood WW, Radulovich N, Starczynowski DT, Banáth JP, Zhang M, Pusic A, Fuller M, Lonergan KM, Rowbotham D, Yee J, English JC, Buys TP, Selamat SA, Laird-Offringa IA, Liu P, Anderson M, You M, Tsao MS, Brown CJ, Bennewith KL, Macaulay CE, Karsan A, Gazdar AF, Lam S, Lam WL. EYA4 is inactivated biallelically at a high frequency in sporadic lung cancer and is associated with familial lung cancer risk. Oncogene. 2013 Oct 7. doi: 10.1038/onc.2013.396.
  43. Hubaux R, Thu KL, Coe BP, MacAulay C, Lam S, Lam WL. EZH2 promotes E2F-driven SCLC tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and cell-cycle regulation. J Thorac Oncol. 2013 Aug;8(8):1102-6.
  44. Laronde DM, Williams PM, Hislop TG, Poh C, Ng S, Bajdik C, Zhang L, MacAulay C, Rosin MP. Influence of fluorescence on screening decisions for oral mucosal lesions in community dental practices. J Oral Pathol Med. J Oral Pathol Med. 2014 Jan;43(1):7-13. doi: 10.1111/jop.12090.
  45. Keyes M, MacAulay C, Hayes M, Korbelik J, Morris WJ, Palcic B. DNA ploidy measured on archived pretreatment biopsy material may correlate with prostate-specific antigen recurrence after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013 Aug 1;86(5):829-34
  46. Lee AM, Ohtani K, Macaulay C, McWilliams A, Shaipanich T, Yang VX, et al. In vivo lung microvasculature visualized in three dimensions using fiber-optic color Doppler optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2013; 18(5): 50501. 23625308
  47. El Hallani S, Poh CF, Macaulay CE, Follen M, Guillaud M, Lane P. Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions. Oral oncology. 2013. 23415144